Effective Building Safety Management System

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Building Category

Building safety is a set of rules that specify the minimum standards for constructed objects like buildings and non-building structures. All buildings shall be classified according to their use or by considering the character of their occupancy.

 

For the purpose of these guidelines, the occupancy classification groups shall be as follows:

Occupancy

Building Category

A

Residential

B

Educational

C

Institutional

D

Health Care

E

Assembly

F

Business and Mercantile

G

Industrial

H

Storage

I

Hazardous

J

Miscellaneous

 

Occupancy A

Residential Buildings

This occupancy sort shall embody any building or portion therefrom providing sleeping and construction to connected or unrelated teams of individuals, with or while not freelance lavatory change of state or dining facilities.

 

Occupancy B

Educational Facilities

This occupancy sort shall embody any building or portion therefrom within which education, coaching and care area unit provided to youngsters or adults.

 

Occupancy C

Institution for Care

Buildings classified below this occupancy shall embrace those used for purposes of institutional care of the occupants, like detention for correctional, medical or nursing care of persons suffering from illness due to mental condition, or an accommodation of kids or minor, the private liberty of the inmate is restricted.

 

Occupancy D

Health Care Facilities

Buildings below this occupancy cluster shall embrace those used for functions of providing medical aid, diagnostic facilities and treatment to persons laid low with physical discomfort, during which sleeping accommodation could or might not be provided.

 

Occupancy E

Assembly

Buildings under this occupancy group shall include any building or portion thereof in which groups of people congregate or assemble for recreation, amusement, social, religious, political, cultural, travel and similar purposes.

 

Occupancy F

Business and Mercantile

Business: These shall include any building or portion thereof which is used for any business transaction other than mercantile.

Mercantile: This occupancy sort shall embrace any building or portion therefrom or cluster of a building that is employed for show and sale of merchandise.

 

Occupancy G

Institutional Buildings

Buildings below this occupancy shall be divided on the thought of hazard potential of the contents and add the processes of the business. The hazard shall usually mean the relative danger of the beginning of fire and the rapidity of its spread, the danger of smoke and gases generated that create a possible threat to the safety of the occupants of the building.

 

Occupancy H

Storage Buildings

Buildings below this occupancy group shall embody any building or portion thence used primarily for storage or sheltering of goods, wares, merchandise, vehicles or animals.

 

Occupancy I

Hazardous Buildings

Any building or portion thereof used as storage, industrial, research and other facilities dealing with hazardous material more than exempted quantity or any micro-biological facilities.

 

Occupancy J

Miscellaneous

Buildings below this occupancy cluster shall embrace special buildings not lined in alternative occupancy teams.

 

 

Precautionary Requirements

Classification of Construction Type: For the purpose of this code, every room or control area or space of a building or a building itself hereafter altered or erected shall be classified in one specific type of construction as grouped as follow:

 

GROUP 1– Non-Combustible, subdivided as follows:

Type- A      4hour Protected

Type- B      3hour Protected

Type- C      2hour Protected

Type- D      1hour Protected

Type- E        Unprotected

 

GROUP 2– Combustible, subdivided as follows:

Type- A      Heavy timber

Type- B      Protected wood joist

Type- C      Unprotected wood joist

Type- D      Protected wood frame

Type- E      Unprotected wood frame

The types of construction are based on fire resistance of construction elements.

 

Effective Building Safety Management System

Fire-Lifts

Fire Lifts

Fire lifts, where installed shall be fully automated from the ground level with all though fire-rated and protected wiring and switches and shall have a minimum capacity of 8 persons. Fire lifts shall be operated and maintained by the inmates of the building except during fire.

 

During the fire, Fireman shall takeover to operate such lifts. Fire lifts shall be equipped with approved two-way voice communication with the fire command station or control room or security room on the exit termination level of a building.

 

The number and location of fire lifts in a building shall be decided on the basis of total occupant load, floor area and compartment. A Lift shaft or bank shall be dedicated to a Fire lift. The speed of the lift shall be such that it can reach the top floor from ground level (non-stop) within 1 minute.

 

Smoke detectors shall be installed at a distance of 3m from every entry doors of Fire Lifts and links with corresponding lift control panel to prevent lift doors to open in case of fire at any level.

 

Means-of-Egress

Means of Egress

A means of egress is a continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel from any point in a building to a public way. A means of egress consists of 3 parts: the exit access, the exit and exit discharge.

 

A public way is a space that is permanently deeded and dedicated to public use, most often a street or lane.

 

Means of Egress Requirements

  • For any storey with only two exits, the maximum occupant load should not exceed 500 people.
  • For any storey with only three exits, the maximum occupant load should not exceed 1000 people.
  • For any storey with only four exits, the maximum occupant load more than 1000 people minimum.
  • For rooms with more than 49 occupants, doors must swing within the direction of egress (i.e. the doors must swing out of the room).
  • For areas with more than 49 occupants, doors ought be equipped with panic hardware (crash bars).

 

Stair Treads Width

General: Minimum widths of exit stairways 1.5m (59 inch)

Existing Building: Only for existing building stairs shall have a minimum width of 0.90m (35 inch)

Newly Building: All newly building constructed stairs shall have a minimum width of 1.25m (50 inch)

Assembly Building: For all assembly occupancies shall have minimum width 2.0m (79 inch)

* Existing stairs shall meet the requirements of this subsection. Stairs shall be of noncombustible construction.

 

Fire Protection Systems in Buildings

Automatic Sprinkler System: Automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all portions of new and existing high-rise buildings with an occupied floor greater than 23m (75 ft) above the finished grade.

 

Hydrant System

The hydrant (Standpipe) system shall be installed throughout all new and existing buildings and structures where the highest occupied floor is more than 10m (33 ft) above.

 

Fire Alarm and Detection System

Automatic fire alarm and detection systems shall be installed throughout all new and existing buildings. Automatic fire alarm system that activates the alarm and occupant notification devices by manual or automatic initiating devices.

 

Portable Fire Extinguishers

Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed throughout all new and existing buildings. Extinguishers shall be placed so most travel distance to the closest unit shall not exceed 30m (100 ft).

 

Fire Extinguisher identification signs shall be announced close to a fireplace extinguisher to simply determine the situation (e.g. if the fire extinguisher is on an oversized pole, the sign would usually be at the highest of the pole therefore it will be seen from a distance).

 

It additionally must place close to the trail of exit travel and it shall be simply accessible.

 

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